Scientific Evidence of Shock Waves in Orthopedics and Traumatology: It is Time to Set the Record Straight

Editorial | Vol 3 | Issue 1 |  Jan – June 2023 | page: 01-06 | Daniel Moya, Sun Wei, Claudio Simplicio, Leonardo Guiloff, Park Kwangsun, Alfonso Di Giorno, Osvaldo Valle, Josep Pous, Ram Chidambaram, Edson Serrano, Víctor Burgos Elía, Paul Terán, Laura Tutte, Fidel Gómez, Paul Patiño, Germán Solano, Jannety Berty Tejedas, Sergio Ajsiv, Graciela Moya

DOI: 10.13107/jrs.2023.v03.i01.67

Author: Daniel Moya [1], Sun Wei [2], Claudio Simplicio [3], Leonardo Guiloff [4], Park Kwangsun [5], Alfonso Di Giorno [6], Osvaldo Valle [7], Josep Pous [8], Ram Chidambaram [9], Edson Serrano [10], Víctor Burgos Elía [11], Paul Terán [12], Laura Tutte [13], Fidel Gómez [14], Paul Patiño [15], Germán Solano [16], Jannety Berty Tejedas [17], Sergio Ajsivinac [18], Graciela Moya [19]

[1] Department of Orthopaedics, Hospital Británico de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina,
[2] Shockwave Center, Department of Orthopedics, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Chaoyang, Beijing, China,
[3] Clinica Ortofisio, Araruama, Río de Janeiro, Brazil,
[4] Department of Traumatology and Orthopedics, University of Chile, Founding Partner and Past President of ACHITOC and ONLAT, Chile,
[5] Seoul Sun Orthopedics Clinic and Vascular Pain Clinic, Seoul, Korea,
[6] Di Giorno Rehabilitation Medical Centers, Focused Shockwave Specialist, Bologna, Italy,
[7] Department of Orthopedic Surgeon, Ankle and Foot Team, MEDS Clinic, Santiago de Chile,
[8] CEMATEC (Centros de Medicina Avanzada y Tecnológica), Barcelona, Spain,
[9] MS Ortho, DNB Ortho, FRCS Surgery (Glasgow), FRCS Tr & Orth (UK). Director, Shoulder, Elbow & Hand Unit MGM Healthcare, Chennai, India.,
[10] Orthopaedic Surgeon. Centro Médico Especializado Neomedica, Lima, Perú,
[11] Coordinator Rehabilitation Service, Corporativo Hospital Satélite, Estado de México, México,
[12] Department of Traumatology and Orthopedics, Orthopedic Specialties Center, Quito, Ecuador,
[13] Department of Rehabilitation, Seguro Americano-Medicina Privada, Montevideo, Uruguay,
[14] Unidad de Medicina Regenerativa, Clinica Ortopédica Traumatocenter, Luque, Paraguay,
[15] Artrocentro, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia,
[16] Orthopaedic Surgeon, Clínica Bíblica, Santa Ana, San José, Costa Rica,
[17] Specialist in Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Chair Clínica Central Cira García, La Habana, Cuba,
[18] Head of Department of Physiatry, Hospital Nacional de Ortopedia y Rehabilitación Dr. Jorge Von Ahn, Ciudad de Guatemala, Guatemala.
[19] Department of Bioethics Institute, Medical Science School, Buenos Aires Pontifical Catholic University, Argentina.

Address of Correspondence
Dr. Daniel Moya,
Department of Orthopaedics, Hospital Británico de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.


“Stephen Burkhart, a pioneer in arthroscopic shoulder surgery, in his keynote address at the World Congress of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery held in Buenos Aires in 2019, asked himself whether this surgical technique could have been developed during the 21st century, the age of evidence-based medicine, and FDA restriction policies [1]. Shoulder arthroscopy is today an accepted and recognized practice by all health insurance companies in the world. However, it must be recognized that its development in shoulder pathology began in the mid-1980s, when the pressure of evidence was much less pronounced. This allowed faster development and massive recognition from insurers. The advent of shock waves in musculoskeletal pathology started in the late 90’s. The publication of a special volume on this subject in 2001 in Clinical Orthopedics, under the coordination of Ogden [2], could be considered a milestone. From that moment, the technique was widely disseminated, but unlike arthroscopy, it has not achieved mass acceptance in the medical field or recognition by most health agencies and insurance companies [3-12]. A few months ago, the National Evidence-based Health-care Collaborating Agency of Korea issued an extremely critical report about the scientific evidence that supports the indications for shock waves [12]. This is not an isolated case; there are numerous examples of health technology assessment agencies and health insurance companies that question the scientific evidence behind shock waves. This determines that reimbursements are not made to patients, but above all it questions not only the effectiveness of the method but also the suitability of the professional who recommends it. Clinical experts experience in many patients shows that shock waves can produce results that would not be possible to achieve with other non-invasive methods. Clinical data comparing previous and post-treatment studies shows an objective positive response that cannot be attributed to a placebo effect (Fig. 1). So, why are there such conflicting criteria between practice, published evidence, and health agencies? Undoubtedly, the current situation is the consequence of the actions of many parties involved; including researchers, industry, state agencies, insurance companies, health professionals, and epidemiologists. It seems that each one approaches the subject from a biased position with a marked preconception about the effectiveness or
uselessness of shock waves.

Are the Current Evidence-based Medicine Reports a Guarantee of Efficacy to Analyze the Indications of Shock Waves?
In 1991, Guyatt introduced the concept of “evidence-based medicine” [13]. It is defined as the use of the scientific method to organize and apply current data to improve health-care decisions [14]. This approach gained great popularity. Health Technology Assessment agencies provide information about medical, economic, social, and ethical issues related to the use of a health technology based on levels of evidence. Reports about evidence from institutions such as the Cochrane Collaboration are highly valued. However, with regard to shock waves, the quality of the reports is in many cases highly debatable. Frequently, emphasis is placed on methodological and statistical factors, which of course is good, but not on the technical aspects of the method. An example is the study of Buchbinder et al. on the use of shock waves in chronic epicondylopathy [15]. The authors concluded that there was “Platinum” level evidence that shock wave therapy provides little or no benefit in terms of pain and function in lateral elbow pain. However, Rompe and Maffulli [16] revealed serious errors in this systematic review based on the inclusion of heterogeneous studies and errors in the shock wave application technique in several cases. Surace et al. [17] discussed the results of “shock wave therapy” in “rotator cuff disease with or without calcification,” with a similar misleading approach. First, they include two differentiate clinical conditions, calcified and non-calcified tendinopathies of the rotator cuff, which have in common their anatomical location only. While a calcification settles by definition in a rotator cuff with regenerative capacities, non-calcified tendinopathy is a degenerative and progressive condition. This is like trying to compare the outcomes of treatments for pneumonia with lung cancer simply because both diseases are located in the lungs. Second, the authors considered focused shock waves and radial pressure waves as the same treatment, when the physical parameters of these mechanical waves are absolutely different [18]. The modes of action and the effects of radial pressure waves on living tissue are different from those of focused shockwaves because bioeffects are related to the pressure waveform [19]. Hence, it is not a proper scientifical approach to consider both of them as the same treatment just because the market named both methods similarly. Nowadays, numerous studies have shown that the best results in the treatment of rotator cuff calcifications are generated from the application of high energy [20-22]; however, the systematic review, we discuss, also includes studies with radial pressure waves that do not reach those energy levels. Although the values of evidence-based medicine are useful, its mode of implementation has been discussed in recent times [23-27]. Decreeing that a method is effective or not based on studies of poor clinical quality, beyond the fact that they may be correct from the statistical point of view, is like trying to end cannibalism by eating the last cannibal. These errors could be avoided by incorporating experts in shock waves and orthopedic pathology into the studies, working jointly with epidemiologists.

What About the Quality of Scientific Literature?
Surgical techniques already installed in our daily practice are usually approved by insurance companies and health technology assessment agencies despite having debatable scientific evidence to support their use. Blom et al. [28] demonstrated that many of the 10 most indicated surgical procedures in orthopedics and traumatology are not supported by studies with a high level of evidence. This is not surprising, as it has been reported poor quality research methodology in the orthopedic literature [29]. Poolman et al. suggested that readers should not assume that studies labeled as “Level I” necessarily have high reporting quality [30]. Ionnanidis stated that for many scientific fields, “claimed research findings may often be simply accurate measures of the prevailing bias [31].” Jager and Leek estimated that the proportion of false positive findings was between 14% and 29% in 100 published clinical studies that they attempted to replicate [32]. We have also witnessed a large number of surgical procedures that had an exponential growth after being approved by health systems, ended up falling into disuse after a few years because same outcomes with conservative treatment were demonstrated. Good examples of this are acromioplasty [33, 34] and the repair of injuries in the superior labrum of the shoulder [35, 36]. It is impossible to draw an accurate conclusion based on inadequate studies. Shock wave studies are not immune to this. In a study presented at the international shock wave congress in San Sebastián, Spain in 2017, 37 clinical trials and a clinical protocol on the use of waves in shoulder pathology were evaluated by Moya et al. [37]. The authors concluded that in 70% of them, the inclusion and/or exclusion criteria were insufficient or inadequate. This included studies that favored the use of focused shock waves and radial pressure waves and those that reported poor results. Besides this, industry influence on the results of clinical studies has also been demonstrated in other fields of orthopedics and trauma [38-42]. The contribution and role of the industry in the development of shock waves have been fundamental. Unfortunately, consciously, or unconsciously, this can generate a bias in the researchers. A paper presented at the same congress by Alfano et al. concluded that a tendency toward an increased frequency of favorable outcomes was found in shockwave papers supported by the industry [43].

What is the Role of Scientific Societies?
Given this enormous anarchy of concepts, methodologies, and criteria, the role of scientific societies is a key factor. Professional medical associations play a very important role in research, education, and dissemination of medical practices. Scientific societies and their members, who are ultimately responsible for therapeutic indications, must be considered as an  essential participant in decision-making, which cannot remain solely in the hands of the market or on organizations to which the system assigns the role of judges. Scientific societies must assume their role being aware of their great responsibility. Health professionals, medical institutions, and the general public trust medical societies recommendations and guidelines. There are situations and risks of bias that should be avoid. The existence of scientific societies dedicated to the study of a specific therapeutic method implies the risk of significant bias. There is the possibility of plunging into a “collective psychosis” in which each one wants to demonstrate a greater ineffability of the method or new indications. In recent years, there has also been an increasing awareness about the extent of the financial links between medical device companies and medical institutions [44]. Institutional academic-industry relationships exist when academic institutions, or any of their senior officials, have a financial relationship with or financial interests in a public or private company [45]. It has been stated that to keep independence and integrity, “leaders of scientific associations must be free of all financial ties with the industry” [46, 47]. Although many institutions have issued conflict of interest guidelines, they are not always clear enough and their implementation is not easy. As Rothman has stated, “education must be carefully distinguished from marketing [44].” Grimshaw and Russell [48] concluded that the guidelines and recommendations of scientific societies do improve clinical practice but must be formulated based on credible evidence without conflicts of interest and on a crystal-clear methodology. In the case of radial pressure waves and focused shock waves, for years, we have followed the recommendations of the International Society for Medical Shockwave Treatment [49]. The indications have been classified into: 1 – Approved standard indications, 2 – Common empirically-tested clinical uses, 3 – Exceptional indications-expert indications, and 4 – Experimental indications. In the era before evidence-based medicine, this classification may have been useful, but it is currently not enough. It is not clear which is the methodology or level of
evidence considered to include each indication in the various categories; how these four categories are defined; what conditions a professional must meet to be considered an expert; etc. The insufficiency of this model is demonstrated by the fact that many health agencies and medical insurers do not accept it.

What is the Way we Choose?
Should a scientific society put aside what happens in the real world and continue to recycle information among a small group of members as if the method were unanimously accepted? We believe that it is important to start from a clear diagnosis of the situation. We must understand that better than looking for new indications or disseminating the use of the technique and promising information not yet published, scientific society’s members should contribute with high level of evidence studies demonstrating that radial pressure waves and focused shock waves are highly effective in specific medical indications. The way for that is to define a clear and reproducible methodology and the
development of consensus reports that represent the opinion of an ex pert workgroup. A first attempt was done few years ago. Indications in the field of orthopedics and traumatology were classified according to the recommendation
scale proposed by the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery [19]. This initiative has been taken as a basis for designing the recommendation guides by the International Federation of Shockwave Treatment. (Fig. 2) An international initiative has been launched in this regard. However, the contribution of shock wave experts and epidemiologists is not enough. Experts and institutions dedicated to the pathology of each of the anatomical regions of the musculoskeletal system must actively participate. The preparation of recommendations for the use of shock waves should not only be the result of specialists in the subject, other specialties that are not directly involved in the technique have much to contribute. It is time to put vertical thinking aside and to promote interdisciplinary proposals putting lateral thinking into practice [1]. Scientific and technological development, understood as a means for the well-being of patients, must be above any sectorial or commercial interest. It is the responsibility of all stakeholders to consistently engage in demonstrating the usefulness of any method. Seeking excellence is always a laudable goal, but it should never become an excuse to choose the easy path of lack of action. We know that this Journal still has a lot to grow from a methodological point of view, but we believe that it is the first step in a dynamic process of growth. As the Chinese philosopher Lao-tse said: “A journey of a thousand miles begins with a first step.” If we are capable of making that long trip, we will make a great contribution to the treatment of many cases that are difficult to solve with other methods.



How to Cite this article: Moya D, Wei S, Simplicio C, Guiloff L, Kwangsun P, Di Giorno A, Valle O, Pous J, Chidambaram R, Serrano E, Burgos Elía V, Terán P, Tutte L, Gómez F, Patiño P, Solano G, Tejedas JB, Ajisivinac S, Moya G | Scientific Evidence of Shock Waves in Orthopedics and Traumatology: It is Time to Set the Record Straight. | Journal of Regenerative Science | Jan – June 2023; 3(1):01-06.


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Focused Shockwaves in Musculoskeletal Pathology: A trip to Cosenza

Editorial | Vol 3 | Issue 1 |  Jan – June 2023 | page: 07-08 | Donà Alessandro, Cempini Matteo, Giuseppe Porcellini, Fabio Catani

DOI: 10.13107/jrs.2023.v03.i01.69

Author: Donà Alessandro [1], Cempini Matteo [2], Giuseppe Porcellini [3], Fabio Catani [4]

[1] Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia,
[2] Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia,
[3] Direttore Unità di Ortopedia e traumatologia università di Modena e Reggio Emilia,
[4] Direttore scuola di Specializzazione di Ortopedia e Traumatologia Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia.

Address of Correspondence
Dr. Donà Alessandro,
Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia.



On March 25, 2023, the congress on therapy with focused shockwaves in musculoskeletal pathology was held in the beautiful setting of the archbishop’s curia in the city of Cosenza.

The congress was attended by international experts in the treatment of tendinopathies and non-union.

The main topic of discussion was the comparison between conservative treatment of these pathologies and surgical treatment, and the comparison of the efficacy of shockwaves with other conservative methods.

The topics discussed were numerous, starting with the experience with the use of shockwaves by colleagues from Argentina with a lectio magistralis by Dr. Daniel Moya on the indications and application of this technique in their latitudes, opening an interesting discussion on treatment protocols (pathology to be treated, number of sessions, and number of shockwaves delivered), and showing how a uniform consensus regarding the clinical practice of this technique has not yet been reached, although the results in the literature are encouraging.

The biological aspects of shockwave functioning were addressed thanks to the experience of Dr. Maria Cristina D’Agostino, highlighting how shockwaves primarily have an effect on the stimulation of endothelial cells for the modulation of inflammation, thanks to the production of TLR-3, creating an early pro-inflammatory effect, followed by a delayed anti-inflammatory response. Furthermore, the main mechanisms of action of shockwaves, such as the synthesis of growth factors (VEGF, BMPs), angiogenesis and vasculogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, and stimulation of the proliferation, differentiation, and migration of stem cells were addressed. At the basis of these biological mechanisms would be macrophages, and shockwaves are responsible for modulating the cross-road of macrophages from the M1 (pro-inflammatory) phase to the M2 (anti-inflammatory and regenerative) phase. Regarding delayed bone healing, it emerged that shockwaves stimulate a reduction of the RANKL/OPG factor, generating an inhibition of osteoclastogenesis.

The presentation by the working group of Dr. Elizaveta Kon on orthobiology in tissue regeneration in both tendinopathies and delayed healing was also interesting, showing technological novelties such as Lipocell in the treatment of osteoarthritis and synthetic bone substitutes used in cases of non-union.

A large space was reserved for the analysis of the biological aspects and risk factors of rotator cuff tendinopathies, with the report by Prof. Gumina, who showed the histological differences between healthy tendon tissue and pathological tendon tissue, highlighting how microcirculation deficit is at the basis of these histopathological conditions.

Prof. Porcellini instead showed the main biomechanical and etiological aspects involved in calcific and non-calcific rotator cuff tendinopathies, analyzing the classification and diagnostic aspects. Particular attention was paid to therapeutic indications in the treatment of shoulder tendinopathies, evaluating the possible indications for conservative treatment or surgical treatment, showing the results obtained in the treatment with focused shockwaves in over 200 carefully selected patients based on the type of calcific tendinopathy present, and highlighting some prognostic factors, such as the size and morphological characteristics of calcific deposits, which are decisive in obtaining satisfactory results with shockwaves.

The central part of the conference was finally the analysis of the results obtained from the multicenter study coordinated by Dr. Alfonso Di Giorno, involving the universities of Modena and Reggio Emilia, La Sapienza University, Magna Grecia University and Tor Vergata University where various pathological conditions were treated such as elbow epicondylitis and epitrocleitis, Non-Union, rotator cuff tendinopathies, and Trochanteritis. The results of the study showed that shockwave therapy in the treatment of these pathologies is a safe and reliable method that provides good outcomes in terms of pain response and recovery of function if used by expert personnel able to provide the correct indications and therefore the correct use of such treatment method.



How to Cite this article: Alessandro D, Matteo C, Porcellini G, Catani F. Focused Shockwaves in Musculoskeletal Pathology: A trip to Cosenza. | Journal of Regenerative Science | Jan – June 2023; 3(1):07-08.


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History of Shock Waves and Radial Pressure Waves From Newton to Our Times

Review Article | Volume 3 | Issue 1 | JRS Jun – June 2023 | Page 09-14 | Daniel Moya, Achim M. Loske, Paul Hobrough , Carla Moya.
DOI: 10.13107/jrs.2023.v03.i01.70

Author: Daniel Moya [1], Achim M. Loske [2], Paul Hobrough [3], Carla Moya [4]

[1] Department of Orthopaedics, Hospital Británico de Buenos Aires, Argentina,
[2] Centro de Física Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Juriquilla, Querétaro, México,,

[3] The University of Northumbria – Newcastle upon Tyne, UK,

[4] Instituto Tecnológico de Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Address of Correspondence
Dr. Daniel Moya,
Department of Orthopaedics, Hospital Británico de Buenos Aires, Argentina.


Although shock waves have been present in nature since its origins, current knowledge took many centuries of study and research. The history of the development of the use of mechanical waves for therapeutic purposes has been a long process in which scientists from many countries contributed. The physical knowledge of waves, the development of generation sources, the first applications in kidney stones and the discovery of their biological impact have been milestones in this long process. The aim of this publication is to highlight previous discoveries that have not been described when analyzing the development of shock waves as a therapeutic tool.

Keywords: Shock waves, Radial pressure waves, History.


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  25. Ueberle F, Rad AJ. Ballistic pain therapy devices: Measurement of pressure pulse parameters. Biomed Tech 2012;57 Suppl 1:700-3.
  26. Loske A, Moya D. Shock waves and radial pressure waves: Time to put a clear nomenclature into practice. J Regen Sci 2021;1:4-8.



How to Cite this article: Moya D, Loske AM, Hobrough P, Moya C. History of Shock Waves and Radial Pressure Waves From Newton to Our Times. | Journal of Regenerative Science | Jan – June 2023; 3(1): 09-14.

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How Shock Waves works ON Musculoskeletal Tissues? The Contribution Of Italian School

Basic Science | Volume 3 | Issue 1 | JRS Jun – June 2023 | Page 15-17 | Sergio Gigliotti , Maria Chiara Vulpiani Maria Cristina D’Agostino , Mario Vetrano, Pietro Romeo , Angela Notarnicola , Roberto Frairia , Laura Berta , Ernesto Amelio, Sergio Russo , Biagio Moretti.
DOI: 10.13107/jrs.2023.v03.i01.073

Author: Sergio Gigliotti [1], Maria Chiara Vulpiani [2], Maria Cristina D’Agostino [3], Mario Vetrano [2], Pietro Romeo [4], Angela Notarnicola [5], Roberto Frairia [6], Laura Berta [4], Ernesto Amelio [7], Sergio Russo [8], Biagio Moretti [5]

[1]  Azienda Sanitaria Locale Napoli 1 Centro-Department of Orthopaedics, Campania, Italy,
[2] Department of Orthopaedics, University of Rome “La Sapienza”,Roma, Italy,

[3] Department of Orthopaedic Rehabilitation, Humanitas Research Hospital, Milan, Italy,

[4] Med and Sport 2000 Center, Turin, Italy,

[5] Department of Orthopaedics, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Bari, Italy,
[6] Department of Internal Medicine, University of Turin, Turin, Italy,
[7] Department of Orthopaedics, University of Verona, Italy,
[8] Department of Orthopaedics, University of Naples, Campania, Italy.


Address of Correspondence
Dr. Sergio Gigliotti,
ASL NA1Centro-Department of Orthopaedics, Campania, Italy.


  1. Mariotto S, Cavalieri E, Amelio E, Ciampa AR, de Prati AC, Marlinghaus E, et al. Extracorporeal shock waves: From lithotripsy to anti-inflammatory action by NO production. Nitric Oxide 2005;12:89-96.
  2. Berta L, Fazzari A, Ficco AM, Enrica PM, Catalano MG, Frairia R. Extracorporeal shock waves enhance normal fibroblast proliferation in vitro and activate mRNA expression for TGF-beta1 and for collagen Types I and III. Acta Orthop 2009;80:612-7.
  3. Catalano MG, Marano F, Rinella L, de Girolamo L, Bosco O, Fortunati N, et al. Extracorporeal shockwaves (ESWs) enhance the osteogenic medium-induced differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells into osteoblast-like cells. J Tissue Eng Regen Med 2017;11:390-9.
  4. Simplicio CL, Purita J, Murrell W, Santos GS, Dos Santos RG, Lana JF. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy mechanisms in musculoskeletal regenerative medicine. J Clin Orthop Trauma 2020; 11 Suppl 3:S309-18.
  5. Rinella L, Marano F, Berta L, Bosco O, Fraccalvieri M, Fortunati N, et al. Extracorporeal shock waves modulate myofibroblast differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells. Wound Repair Regen 2016;24:275-86.
  6. Muzio G, Vernè E, Canuto RA, Martinasso G, Saracino S, Baino F, et al. Shock waves induce activity of human osteoblast-like cells in bioactive scaffolds. J Trauma 2010;68:1439-44.
  7. De Girolamo L, Stanco D, Galliera E, Viganò M, Lovati AB, Marazzi MG, et al. Soft-focused extracorporeal shock waves increase the expression of tendon-specific markers and the release of anti-inflammatory cytokines in an adherent culture model of primary human tendon cells. Ultrasound Med Biol 2014;40:1204-15.
  8. Sansone V, D’ Agostino MC, Bonora C, Sizzano F, De Girolamo L, Romeo P. Early angiogenic response to shock waves in a three-dimensional model of human microvascular endothelial cell culture (HMEC-1). J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 2012;26:29-37.
  9. Vetrano M, D’Alessandro F, Torrisi MR, Ferretti A, Vulpiani MC, Visco V. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy promotes cell proliferation and collagen synthesis of primary cultured human tenocytes. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2011;19:2159-68.
  10. Leone L, Vetrano M, Ranieri D, Raffa S, Vulpiani MC, Ferretti A, et al. Extracorporeal Shock Wave Treatment (ESWT) improves in vitro functional activities of ruptured human tendon-derived tenocytes. PLoS One 2012;7:e49759.
  11. Leone L, Raffa S, Vetrano M, Ranieri D, Malisan F, Scrofani C, et al. Extracorporeal Shock Wave Treatment (ESWT) enhances the in vitro-induced differentiation of human tendon-derived stem/progenitor cells (hTSPCs) Oncotarget 2016;7:6410-23.
  12. Vetrano M, Ranieri D, Nanni M, Pavan A, Malisan F, Vulpiani MC, et al. Hyaluronic Acid (HA), Platelet-Rich Plasm and Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy (ESWT) promote human chondrocyte regeneration in vitro and ESWT-mediated increase of CD44 expression enhances their susceptibility to HA treatment. PLoS One 2019;14:e0218740.
  13. Moretti B, Iannone F, Notarnicola A, Lapadula G, Moretti L, Patella V, et al. Extracorporeal shock waves down-regulate the expression of interleukin-10 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in osteoarthritic chondrocytes. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2008;9:16.
  14. Tamma R, dell’Endice S, Notarnicola A, Moretti L, Patella S, Patella V, et al. Extracorporeal shock waves stimulate osteoblast activities. Ultrasound Med Biol 2009;35:2093-100.
  15. Iannone F, Moretti B, Notarnicola A, Moretti L, Patella S, Patella V, et al. Extracorporeal shock waves increase interleukin-10 expression by human osteoarthritic and healthy osteoblasts in vitro. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2009;27:794-9.
  16. Notarnicola A, Tamma R, Moretti L, Fiore A, Vicenti G, Zallone A, et al. Effects of radial shock waves therapy on osteoblasts activities Musculoskelet Surg 2012;96:183-9.



How to Cite this article: Gigliotti S, Vulpiani MC, D’Agostino MC, Vetrano M, Romeo P, Notarnicola A, Frairia R, Berta L, Amelio E, Russo S, Moretti B. How shock waves works on musculoskeletal tissues? The contribution of Italian school. | Journal of Regenerative Science | Jan – June 2023; 3(1): 15-17.

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In the Garden of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy, Not Everything is Roses

Review Article | Volume 3 | Issue 1 | JRS Jun – June 2023 | Page 18-21 | Achim M. Loske
DOI: 10.13107/jrs.2023.v03.i01.075

Author: Achim M. Loske 

[1] Centro de Física Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Juriquilla, Querétaro, México.

Address of Correspondence
Dr. Achim M Loske,
Centro de Física Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México,
Blvd. Juriquilla 3001, Querétaro, Qro., 76230 México.


The popularity of extracorporeal shock wave therapy to treat a large variety of medical conditions is indisputable. Despite this, sometimes poor results are obtained, and mild to severe complications have been reported. In most cases, wrong information and lack of training are responsible for this. The objective of this article is to explain the potential danger of using shock waves and radial pressure waves, as well as the reasons why, from the point of view of physics, sometimes the outcome is not as expected.

Keywords: Extracorporeal shock wave therapy, Shock waves, Radial pressure waves, Interaction with matter, Acoustic cavitation.


  1. International Society for Medical Shockwave Therapy. Introduction and Prerequisites and Minimal Standards of Performing ESWT. Available from:
  2. Novak KF. Physics: F-SW and R-SW. Basic information on focused and radial shock wave physics. In: Lohrer H, Gerdesmeyer L, editors. Multisdisciplinary Medical Applications. Heilbronn, Germany: Level 10 Buchverlag Daniela Bamberg; 2014.
  3. Philipp A, Delius M, Scheffczyk C, Vogel A, Lauterborn W. Interaction of lithotripter-generated shock waves with air bubbles. J Acoust Soc Am 1993;93:2496-509.
  4. Coralic V. Simulation of Shock-induced Bubble Collapse with Application to Vascular Injury in Shockwave Lithotripsy. Dissertation. Pasadena, CA, USA: California Institute of Technology; 2014.
  5. Ueberle F, Jamshidi Rad A. Ballistic pain therapy devices: Measurement of pressure pulse parameters. Biomed Eng/Biomed Tech 2012;57:700-3.


How to Cite this article: Loske AM. In the Garden of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy, Not Everything is Roses. | Journal of Regenerative Science | Jan – June 2023; 3(1): 18-21.

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Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy in Greater Trochanteric Pain Syndrome

Review Article | Volume 3 | Issue 1 | JRS Jun – June 2023 | Page 22-25 | Oyama Arruda Frei Caneca Junior , Ibrahim Afranio Willi Liu .
DOI: 10.13107/jrs.2023.v03.i01.077

Author: Oyama Arruda Frei Caneca Junior [1], Ibrahim Afranio Willi Liu [2]

[1] Director of SMBTOC, Orthopedic Surgeon at GOT Recife (Orthopedics and Traumatology Group), Brazil,
[2] Director of the Brazilian Medical Society for Shockwave Treatment-SMBTOC and Brazilian Orthopedic Society-SBOT Pain Committee.

Address of Correspondence
Dr. Oyama Arruda Frei Caneca Junior,
Director of SMBTOC, Orthopedic Physician at GOT Recife (Orthopedics and Traumatology Group), Brazil.


Peritrochanteric hip pain or great trochanter pain syndrome (GTPS) is a frequent complaint in offices and is the most common cause of pain and tenderness affecting the lateral part of the hip. Traditional conservative treatment of GTPS includes the use of anti-inflammatory drugs, physical therapy, and changing activities of daily living. In resistant cases, shockwave treatment presents satisfactory results considered good and excellent in 70 to 80% of GTPS cases treated by this technique, reducing the need for other treatments and the use of medications for long eriods. The treatment of GTPS with shock waves can be performed with focal waves or radial pressure waves, with the application of 3 initial sessions with an interval of one week, frequencies between 4 and 6 Hz, with 500 initial pulses in the region and at least 2000 pulses using energy between medium and high intensity at the point of greatest sensitivity on palpation, It is also important to treat the trigger points of the hip region. Due to the anatomical characteristics of a deep joint and the frequent presence of an associated myofascial pain, hip pathologies are a good option for the concomitant use of focal and radial pressure waves.

Keywords: Greater trochanteric pain syndrome; Trochanteric bursitis; hip pain; lateral hip pain; Shock waves; Radial pressure waves.


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  11. Ramon S, Russo S, Santoboni F, Lucenteforte G, Di Luise C, de Unzurrunzaga R, Vetrano M, Albano M, Baldini R, Cugat R, Stella G, Balato G, Seijas R, Nusca SM, Servodidio V, Vulpiani MC. Focused shockwave treatment for greater trochanteric pain syndrome: a multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2020 Aug 5;102(15):1305-1311. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.20.00093.
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  15. Congresso Brasileiro de Tratamento por Ondas de Choque, 3º, 2018, São Paulo. Consensos no Tratamento da Síndrome Trocantérica. III Brazilian Congress of Shockwave Treatment (SMBTOC).
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How to Cite this article: Junior OAFC, Liu IAW | Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy in Greater Trochanteric Pain Syndrome. | Journal of Regenerative Science | Jan – June 2023; 3(1): 22-25.

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Achilles Tendinopathy, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management with Shockwave Therapy

Review Article | Volume 3 | Issue 1 | JRS Jun – June 2023 | Page 26-31 | Paul German Terán , Estefania Anabel Lozada , Alvaro Santiago LeMarie.
DOI: 10.13107/jrs.2023.v03.i01.79

Author: Paul German Terán [1], Estefania Anabel Lozada [1], Alvaro Santiago LeMarie [2]

[1] Department of Traumatology and Orthopedics, Orthopedic Specialties Center, Quito, Ecuador,
[2] Anatomy Professor, Faculty of Medicine, International University of Ecuador.

Address of Correspondence
Dr. Paul German Terán,
Department of Traumatology and Orthopedics, Orthopedic Specialties Center, Quito, Ecuador.


The Achilles tendon is a strong structure that is frequently injured in runners and jumpers, but it can also be present in patients who do not engage in any sports. This clinical syndrome is characterized by pain, structural changes, and impairment of physical function. Achilles tendinopathy is extensively studied because it can be devastating, with slow and prolonged recovery that can take a year or more, and a high risk of re-injury. This condition is classified into insertional and non-insertional Achilles tendinopathy, depending on the affected region of the tendon. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors contribute to the intratendinous changes in vascularization and elevated pain neurotransmitters. The diagnosis is primarily based on the patient’s clinical history, and imaging techniques such as ultrasound, including sonoelastography, and magnetic resonance imaging can be useful in identifying the nature, location, and extent of the lesion. Treatment options for Achilles tendinopathy include rehabilitation, image-guided injections, shockwave therapy, ultrasound therapy, percutaneous intratissue electrolysis, orthotics, medications, and surgery. Among these options, shockwave therapy may provide the best tolerance, pain relief, and functional recovery.

Keywords: Achilles tendon, tendinopathy, insertional, non-insertional, extracorporeal shock waves.


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How to Cite this article: Terán PG, Lozada EA, LeMarie AS. | Achilles Tendinopathy, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management with Shockwave Therapy. | Journal of Regenerative Science | Jan – June 2023; 3(1): 26-31.

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Lateral Epicondylitis: General Concepts and Shock Wave Treatment Evidence

Review Article | Volume 3 | Issue 1 | JRS Jun – June 2023 | Page 32-34 | Ricardo Kobayashi.
DOI: 10.13107/jrs.2023.v03.i01.81

Author: Ricardo Kobayashi [1]

[1] Pain Center, University of S£o Paulo, S£o Paulo, Brazil.

Address of Correspondence
Dr. Ricardo Kobayashi, MD, Phd,
Pain Center, University of S£o Paulo, S£o Paulo, Brazil.


Introduction:Lateral epicondylitis (LE) is one of the most common tendinopathies of the upper extremity characterized by lateral elbow pain, seriously affecting patients’ daily life and work.
Pathophysiology: Anatomically, the common extensor insertion on the lateral epicondyle of the humerus, mostly the extensor carpi radial is brevis tendon insertion, undergoes microtearing associated with a chronic repair process, but hardly any inflammation. The pathoanatomy of overuse tendinopathy is non-inflammatory angiofibroblastic tendinosis. For this reason, the term ‘‘tendinitis’’ is avoided, and ‘‘tendinosis’’ is preferred.
Diagnosis: LE is primarily a clinical diagnosis. The natural history is a gradual onset of pain in the absence of defined trauma. The most
common findings on physical examination are tenderness at the lateral epicondyle of the distal humerus and weakness or pain with resisted wrist extension (the Thomsen test).
Treatment: Non-surgical options are the mainstream treatment for LE, a small proportion of patients eventually undergoes surgery, although surgery for LE is no more effective than non-surgical treatment, based on evidence. Non-operative treatments including rest, application of ice, administration of analgesic medications, orthopedic devices, ultrasound, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, eccentric training, and extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT).
Shockwave Treatment of LE: There are many therapeutic options for treating LE. The existing evidence does not clearly support the efficacy of any of the available treatment methods for this clinical condition. ESWT is not the exception, although it was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treating this disease in 2002 and much of the current evidence supports its indication for LE..

Keywords: Lateral epicondylitis, Tennis elbow, Tendinopathy, Shock waves.


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How to Cite this article: Kobayashi R. | Lateral Epicondylitis: General Concepts and Shock Wave Treatment Evidence. | Journal of Regenerative Science | Jan – June 2023; 3(1): 32-34.

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