Medical Applications of Diamagnetism: A Narrative Review
Review Article | Volume 2 | Issue 2 | JRS Jul – Dec 2022 | Page 07-12 | Pietro Romeo , Obando Felipe Torres , Federica di Pardo , Thomas Graus
Author: Pietro Romeo , Obando Felipe Torres , Federica di Pardo , Thomas Graus 
 Periso Academy, Lugano, Switzerland,
 Cell Regeneration Medical Organization-University El Bosque, Bogotá, Colombia,
 Periso Medical Division, Pazzallo, Switzerland.
Address of Correspondence
Dr. Pietro Romeo, MD
Periso Academy, Lugano, Switzerland.
Magnetism includes the tendency of the matter to react to an incoming Magnetic Field both in attractive and repulsive way. With regard to the latter phenomenon , Diamagnetism, the ultra-structure of the matter shows unpaired electrons with an antiparallel spin, the high polarity, and the absence of a proper magnetic moment. All this results in a repulsive effect which induces the movement of diamagnetic liquids and molecules, the water first, so realizing the so called diamagnetic effect . This effect involves both the extracellular and intracellular environment, with the possibility to move various diamagnetic molecules and the flux of ions across the cell membrane, acting on the metabolic processes of the biological matter. The full realization of this phenomenon requires a high intensity of the magnetic field together with the possibility to modulate two key parameters such the Frequency and the Amplitude of the impulse. This review analyses the real and possible applications of Diamagnetism in clinical practice.
Keywords: Diamagnetism, Repulsive Effect, High Intensity Magnetic Fields.
1. Zablotskii V, Polyakova T, Dejneka A. Modulation of the cell membrane potential, and intracellular protein transport by high magnetic fields.Bioelectromagnetics 2021;42:27-36.
2. Hall LT, Hill CD, Cole JH, Stadler B, Caruso F, Mulvaney P, et al. Monitoring ion channel function in real-time through quantum decoherence. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A2010;107:18777-82.
3. Viganò M, Sansone V, d’Agostino MC, Romeo P, Orfei CP, De Girolamo L. Mesenchymal stem cells as a therapeutic target of biophysical
stimulation for the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders. J Orthop Surg Res 2016;11:163.
4. Yasuda I. Piezoelectricity of living bone. J Kyoto Pref Univ Med 1953;53:325-8. Yasuda . The classic: Fundamental aspects of the treatment of bone fractures treatment by Iwao Yasuda, reprinted from J. Kyoto Med. Soc., 4:395-406,1953. Clin Orthop Relat Res 1977;124:5-8.
5. Wade B. A review of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) mechanisms at a cellular level: Arationale for clinical use. Am J Health Res 2013;1:51.
6. Obando FT, Romeo P, Vergara D, di Pardo F, Soto A. The effects of low-frequency high-intensity pulsed electromagnetic fields (diamagnetic therapy) in the treatment of rare diseases: A case series preliminary study. J Neurol Exp Neural Sci 2022;4:145.
7. Roberti R, Marcianò R, Casarella A, Rania V, Palleria C, Muraca L, et al. High-intensity, low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic field as an odd treatment in a patient with mixed foot ulcer: A case report. Reports 2022;5:3.
8. National Research Council. Opportunities in High Magnetic Field Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2005.
9. Kohout M, Savine A. Atomic shell structure and electron numbers. Int J Quantum Chem 1996;60:875-82.
10. Petrescu N, Petrescu FI. Permanent magnetic fluids. Am J Eng Appl Sci 2019;12:402-12.
11. National Council of Educational Research and Training. Website-India-Physics Textbook-Part 1-Magnetism and Matter. Ch. 5. New Delhi: National Council of Educational Research and Training; 2020. Available from:( https://www.ncert.nic.in textbook).
12. Jackson R. John Tyndall and the early history of diamagnetism. Ann Sci 2015;72:435-89.
13. Purnell MC, Skrinjar TJ. The dielectrophoretic disassociation of chloride ions and the influence on diamagnetic anisotropy in cell membranes. Discov Med 2016;22:257-73.
14. Premi E, Benussi A, La Gatta A, Visconti S, Costa A, Gilberti N, et al. Modulation of long-term potentiation-like cortical plasticity in the healthy brain with low frequency-pulsed electromagnetic fields. BMC Neurosci 2018;19:34.
15. Edmonds DT. Larmor precession as a mechanism for the detection of static and alternating magnetic fields. Bioelectrochem Bioenerg 1993;30:3-12.
16. Barnes FG, Greenebaum B. Handbook of Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields. 3rd ed. Florida: CRC Press; 2006.
17. World Health Organization. Magnetic Field Environmental Health Criteria 69 Magnetic Fields (EHC 69). Geneva: World Health Organization; 1987.
18. Blank M, Goodman R. A mechanism for stimulation of biosynthesis by electromagnetic fields: Charge transfer in DNAand base-pair separation. J Cell Physiol 2008;214:20-6.
19. Zablotskii V, Polyakova T, Dejneka A. Effects of high magnetic fields on the diffusion of biologically active molecules. Cells 2021;11:81.
20. Qian AR, Gao X, Zhang W, Li JB, Wang Y, Di SM, et al. Large gradient high magnetic fields affect osteoblast ultrastructure and function by disrupting collagen I or fibronectin/ab1 integrin. PLoS One 2013;8:e51036.
21. Wang Y, Chen ZH, Yin C, Ma JH, Li DJ, Zhao F, et al. Gene chip expression profiling reveals the alterations of energy metabolism related genes in osteocytes under large gradient high magnetic fields. PLoS One 2015;10:e0116359.
22. Zablotskii V, Polyakova T, Lunov O, Dejneka A. How a high-gradient magnetic field could affect cell life. Sci Rep 2016;6:37407.
23. Carnovali M, Stefanetti N, Galluzzo A, Romeo P, Mariotti M, V. Sansone. High-intensity low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields treatment stimulates fin regeneration in adult zebrafish-a preliminary report. Appl Sci 2022;12:7768.
24. Lin HY, Lin YJ. In vitro effects of low-frequency electromagnetic fields on osteoblast proliferation and maturation in an inflammatory environment. Bioelectromagnetics 2011;32:552-60.
25. Morris CE, Skalak TC. Acute exposure to a moderate strength static magnetic field reduces edema formation in rats. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2008;294:H50-7.
26. Izzo M, Napolitano L, Coscia V, La Gatta A, Mariani F, Gasbarro V. The role of the diamagnetic pump (CTU Mega 18) in the physical treatment of limbs lymphoedema. A clinical study. Eur J Lymphol Rel Probl 2010;21:24-9.
27. Obando FT, Velasco JM, Soto A, Di Pardo F. Effects of High-intensity Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields (HI-PEMF) in Interstitial Lung Fibrosis due to the Anti-Synthetase Syndrome Associated with Sjogren’s Syndrome. A Case Report; 2020. p. 6.
28. Obando AF, Romeo P, Visconti S. Experience in the Respiratory Rehabilitation Program for the Treatment of Lung Interstitial Disease in Post-COVID-19 Pneumonia by Associating Low-frequency-High Intensity-Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields (Diamagnetotherapy): A Case Series Study; 2020. p. 8.
29. Obando AF, Velasco JM, Romeo P. Variable low frequency-high intensity-pulsed electromagnetic fields in the treatment of low back pain: A case series report and a review of the literature. J Orthop Res Ther 2020;5:1174.
30. Roberti R, Marcianò G, Casarella A, Rania V, Palleria C, Vocca C, et al. Diamagnetic therapy in a patient with complex regional pain syndrome Type I and multiple drug intolerance: Acase report. Reports 2022;5:18.
31. Baronio M, Sadia H, Paolacci S, Prestamburgo D, Miotti D, Guardamagna VA, et al. Molecular aspects of regional pain syndrome. Pain Res Manag 2020;2020:7697214.
32. Chan AK, Tang X, Mummaneni NV, Coughlin D, Liebenberg E, Ouyang A, et al. Lotz pulsed electromagnetic fields reduce acute inflammation in the injured rat-tail intervertebral disc JOR Spine 2019;2:e1069.
33. De Girolamo L, Viganò M, Galliera E, Stanco D, Setti S, Marazzi MG, et al. In vitro functional response of human tendon cells to different dosages of low frequency pulsed electromagnetic field. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2015;23:3443-53.
34. Vincenzi F, Targa M, Corciulo C, Gessi S, Merighi S, Setti S, et al. Pulsed electromagnetic fields increased the anti-inflammatory effect of A₂A and A₃ adenosine receptors in human T/C-28a2 chondrocytes and h FOB 1.19 osteoblasts. PLoS One 2013;8:e65561.
35. Diamagnetism as an Alternative or Integrating Cellular Therapy for COVID-19 in Knowledge from the Human Relevant Cell, Tissue, and Mathematics-based Methods as Key Tools for Understanding COVID-19 Dynamics, Kinetics, Symptoms, Risk Factors, and Non-conventional Treatment in the Coronavirus Pandemic and the Future. Chem World; 2021. p. 94-101.
|How to Cite this article: Romeo P, Torres OF, Di Pardo F, Graus T |Medical Applications of Diamagnetism. | Journal of Regenerative Science | Jul – Dec 2022; 2(2): 07-12.|